RES Handbook Vol 10 Part 7. Diptera - Hippoboscidae and Nycteribiidae (Keds, Flat-Flies and Bat-Flies)

The Hippoboscidae, Nycteribiidae and Streblidae are families of Diptera that have been combined under the name Pupipara. They are permanent, obligate, blood-feeding ectoparasites of birds or mammals and, in common with tsetse-flies (Glossinidae), the females do not lay eggs but nurture larvae internally, singly. When fully developed each larva is released and pupates immediately. The Nycteribiidae and Streblidae are exclusively parasitic on bats, while the Hippoboscidae parasitise birds and Artiodactyl mammals (with a few species on other mammals). The Hippoboscidae and Nycteribiidae occur throughout the world with the richest fauna in the Old World tropics. The Streblidae are mainly tropical with a few species occurring in the lower temperate latitudes, but not as far as Britain. In the Neotropical Region, Streblidae are particularly diverse, both in number of species and their range of form.
A. M. Hutson
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